Secondary hypertension, also known as secondary high blood pressure, refers to a situation in which high blood pressure is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. Unlike primary hypertension, which has no identifiable cause, secondary hypertension can be attributed to specific factors. 

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

1. Kidney problems: Conditions such as kidney disease, renal artery stenosis (narrowing of the arteries supplying the kidneys), and polycystic (multiple abnormal spaces) kidney disease can lead to high blood pressure.

2. Hormonal disorders such as adrenal gland disorders (e.g., Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, a type of cancer of the adrenal gland) and hyperthyroidism (excessive activity of the thyroid gland), can contribute to secondary hypertension.

3. Medications: Uncontrolled use or abuse of certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Piroxicam, indomethacin), birth control pills, decongestants (Flu-J, Contac, Actified), steroids (Testosterone, Dexamethasone, Prednisolone) and some antidepressants, can elevate blood pressure.

4. Obstructive sleep apnea: This sleep disorder, characterized by interrupted breathing during sleep, has been linked to secondary hypertension.

5. Blood vessel abnormalities like coarctation of the aorta (narrowing of the main artery carrying blood from the heart), arteritis (inflammation of arteries), and certain congenital heart defects can contribute to high blood pressure.

6. Obesity.

It is important to identify and address the underlying cause of secondary hypertension in order to effectively manage blood pressure levels.
Treatment options may vary depending on the specific cause but can include medication, lifestyle changes (such as diet modification and exercise), and addressing the underlying medical condition. It is essential to work closely with a healthcare professional to develop an individualized treatment plan.

Composer: Dr. Yeibake Weriwoyingipre Silver

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